The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

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The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Sun Aug 19, 2012 12:35 am

The British and Canadian Armies 1812-1815

History and Bias from Both Sides
Spoiler: show
From "Flames Along the Border"

"British and Canadian forces were outnumbered 4 to 1 by American forces, but they were four times more disciplined."

Most modern Canadian and American military forces have their roots in this war. This was the infancy of both countrys' military. Canadian forces had the benefit of having British training and supply, and though they had true militia, many of their units (8 battalions) that were called militia were equipped, trained and drilled as line infantry, and performed as such.

Notable campaign ending battles on Canadian soil;
Queenston Heights, Thames/ Moraviatown (the only notable US victory against a force it outumbered 4 to 1), Chateauguay, Crysler's Farm, Stoney Creek, Lacolle Mills, Lundy's Lane (Fort Erie)

This all changed when the veteran British along with the Canadian troops tried to invade the US. To counter these two invasion forces of 22 000 men the US had 55 000 regulars and irregulars and mobilized 200 000 militia. The first force of 11 000 British regulars had a couple of initial successes at Bladensberg and North Point but were met with 100 cannons and a much larger force at Baltimore, also their general was killed, they made a hasty departure to New Orleans to an even worse fate. Several ships and muliple batteries along a heavily fortified position heavily defeated the British force. The second force of around 11 000 Canadian and British troops were engaged at Plattsburg, when the naval forces sent to defeat the US ships that were blocking their supply routes defeated the British ships. This part of the invasion was over. At the end of the war the British had taken Fort Bowyer near New Orleans, but the invasion of the US was over. US engineering and a burgeoning military had defeated one of the best infantry forces in the world.


British Units 1812-early 1814
*these were mostly stationed in upper Canada (Ontario)
19th Light Dragoons Regiment
8 Regular Battalions; not all saw action 2 were just garrison troops
3 Foreign battalions; garrison troops, former French pows or former french loyalist Swiss
Several Foot Artillery Batteries
Rocket Battery (1814 on)

Lower Canadian Units (Quebec) 1812-1815
*these were French troops; besides the Voltigeurs, these did not fight as much as the troops in Upper Canada; they beat two American invasion attempts (La Cole Mills and Chateauguay)
4 to 5 Troops of Militia Light Dragoons (300 total)
1 Light Infantry Battalion; Canadian Voltigeurs (Regulars) *also fought in Ontario
2 Irregular Light Infantry Battalion; Voyageurs *involved in all areas of the war
2 Battalions Native Warriors (equivalent)
6 Battalions Embodied Militia (these were Provincial Regulars; coscript quality)
1 Bat Light Infantry Embodied Militia; Canadian Chasseurs; these were brig.with the voltigeurs
80 Battalions Lower Canada Militia (French) *16 mobilized during the war; were not needed French forces easily defated invasion attempts with just vanguard; only small elements saw action. 1/4 of militia was formed into "flank companies" which were called into service first. A typical unit would have 150 to 200 flankers (estimate 10 000 flankers, 40 000 total)
*7 battalions were Urban uniformed militia which would have been fully uniformed (conscript quality)
"Car Brigades" Provincial regulars used to make foot into horse artillery

Upper Canada Units (Ontario) 1812-1815
*these were Engish, Scottish and former American Canadian troops, these were heavily involved in fighting for the course of the war
2 Troops of Canadian Light Dragoons (Provincial Regulars)
8 to 10 troops Militia Light Dragoons (300 to 400 total)
1 Light Infantry Battalions (Regulars); Glengarry Light Infantry *excellent
4 Regular Battalions; used as Marines, Lights or line troops
Several Irregular Light Infantry Companies (Caldwell's Western rangers, Kent Rangers, Coloured Corps)*these light infantry forces fought heavily
8 to 10 Battalions Native Warriors (equivalent)
1 Battalion Embodied Militia (Provincial Regulars; conscript quality)
32 Battalions Upper Canada Militia (English) *half of these saw action; many wore british line uniforms; about half saw action *note 4 or 5 battalions flank companies would make up an actual battalion 1/4 were flank companies, it was these units which were usually used.
6 Battalions highland militia (2 dundas, 1 Stormant, and 2 glengarry); Glengarries dressed similar to 93rd highlanders, the other units had bagpipes and Scottish regalia was popular
*total Upper Canada militia 2500 flankers, 11 000 total.
1 Provincial Regular Artillery Unit
"Car Brigades" Provincial regulars used to make foot into horse artillery

Maritime Units (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Newfoundland) 1812-1815
*there were no land battles in the maritimes, none of these saw action
2 Canadian Fencible (regulars) Battalions; New Brunswick and Nova Scotia
30 Battalions of Militia

British Invasion Force 1814-1815; The following Forces attacked the US plus much of the forces described above in 2 armies, each of about 11 000. A smaller third force occupied parts of Maine at the end of the war (1500 men??)
6th Inniskilling Dragoons Detachment; served as guard for command
14th Light Dragoons (2 squadrons)
1 95th Rifles Battalion
1 60th Light Battalion (occupied Maine)
2 Highlanders Battalions (both were 93rd Highlanders; 1st bat wore tartaned pants, the 2nd never left Nova Scotia)
19 Veteran Foot Battalions
4 West Indies Battalions
West Indies Colonial Marines
2 Marine Battalions; each with a rocket battery
Additional Foot Batteries
Last edited by Chuckman on Wed Nov 28, 2012 12:48 am, edited 9 times in total.
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Sun Aug 19, 2012 4:36 pm

Uniforms 1812 and 1815 British Army; British / Canadian and Native Units

Light Infantry Units

1. 95th Rifles (1 battalion)

2. Glengarry Light Infantry Fencibles (Scottish Canadian)
Image

3. Canadian Voltigeurs (10 companies) (French Canadian Skirmish unit) considered line
Image

4. 7th Royal North Fusiliers
http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/p ... t_png.html

5. Native Warriors *only fought as skirmishers; estimate 3000 or so over the war; 2/3s of which were from Tecumseh's confederacy. They were usually accompanied by or led by British officers in red coats. These were fantastic light infantry when used to support line infantry. Excellent woodsmen, shots and scary in melee.

Image
Image
Image

6. Caldwell's Western Rangers; 2 companies worth
*These were the descendant Butler's Rangers from the American Revolution, with the same commander even.
Image

7. Canadian Chasseurs (5th Embodied militia) Uniformed as the French Canadian Voltigeurs above but with a stove pipe shako, in 1812 these were a line unit, they were converted to lights in early 1814. As seen below, along with Voyageurs (they fought similarly to natives), 2 volunteer units which combined with the Canadian Voltigeurs and an Indian Department Officer.
Image

8. 60th Regiment; 5th Battalion
This unit was part of a force which occupied Maine for the last bit of the war. They did not see much action as the New England states were pro British. Most had muskets, 2 companies had rifles.
Image

Infantry Units
1. British Marines 2 or 3 battalions (including "colonial marines)
*At right
Image

2. 93rd Sutherland Highlanders; 1st and 2nd battalion; the first fought at New Orleans, the 2nd was stationed in Nova Scotia from 1814 to 1815 (and had kilts and bonnets)
http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/p ... d_jpg.html
Image

3. 88th Connaught Rangers

4. 27th Inniskillings

5. 104th New Brunswick Foot (these were Canadian fencibles that became numbered line); they were uniformed as British line but had buff facings and pants
*Note this regiment had African Canadian Sappers
Image
http://www.warof1812.ca/104th.htm

6. British Foot; 25 plus battalions
Image
Image

A Complete List of British Line
Image

7. Canadian Fencibles; 5 Battalions (Canadian Regulars)
*Uniformed as British Line; New Brunswick Fencibles (in addition to the line unit above), Canadian Fencibles, Nova Scotia, Michigan Fencibles(only a company or two), and the Newfoundland Fencibles (this unit was used as Marines)
Image
Canadian Standard (British)
Image

8. 8 Battalions Embodied Militia (these were Provincial Regulars, conscript level); note that 7 of these were entirely french and mostly did not leave Quebec, the other was English and fought in Ontario.
Uniform; As British Line with stovepipe shako and blue pants, green jackets initially; all had red jackets by 1814. In 1813 the 5th battalion was converted to light infantry
Stats; conscript level; had as much training as most US line
http://www.cmhg-phmc.gc.ca/cmh/image-31 ... age_id=381
Image

9. 4 West Indies Battalions; 3 of Line and 1 of Rangers *these were formed from black men in the Caribean. They had a good history with the British army.
http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/p ... 1_jpg.html
Image

10. 3 Foreign Regiments; The two Swiss units were formed mainly from POW's. The French Company of Foreigners entirely of POW's.
"Swiss"; Both of these two units were named after their commander and had been originally formed in Switzerland. They were now multinational and had been filled with POWs from the Peninsular War.
De Meuron; There were 500 Polish men in this unit; probably the other 200 or so were mostly the orginal Swiss
http://www.napoleon-series.org/military ... /Poles.pdf
Image
De Wattville; 19% Swiss, the others were German, Polish, Italian French etc
Image
http://www.napoleon-series.org/military ... htmlFrench (from POW from Europe)
Company of Foreigners
This unit was formed from French POWs. This unit was dressed similar to the 95th rifles.
Image

11. Upper Canada Highlander Miltia (scottish canadian) 5 battalions
The 2 Glengarry battalions looked similar to 93rd highlanders; green jackets, tartaned pants
http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/p ... a_jpg.html
The 2 Dundas and Stormant battalions had Scottish regalia form many members
Image

12. Lower Canada Sedentary Militia (french) *80+ battalions
http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/p ... e_jpg.html

Image

Quebec City and Montreal Each had 3 battalions of better uniformed, equipped and trained sedentary militia. Trois Riviere had one. These French units were originally in blue jackets but were ordered to wear red to not look like Americans. One of the three units in Montreal and one of the three in Quebec were English units that always dressed as shown.
Quebec Urban Militia
Image
Montreal and Trois Rivierre Urban Uniformed Militia
Image

13. Upper Canada Sedentary Miltia (English canadian) *35 battalions
uniform; half were as british regulars exactly, half had wide brimmed hat, long brown jacket and white bands tied on arm and hat *officers wore a cowboy type hat. By 1814 it seems that most flank companies in Upper Canada would have had green or red jackets and majority would have had shakos. A minority of the other 3/4 would have had uniforms as well.
http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/p ... c_PNG.html
http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/p ... a_JPG.html
http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/p ... e_jpg.html
http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/p ... a_jpg.html
Image
A Minority of Militia in 1814 on Received these Uniforms;
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Nova Scotia Militia; not engaged in the war
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New Brunswick Militia; not engaged in the war
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Prince Edward Island
Image

14. Voyageurs; 400 men fought; these were fronteir boatmen / traders

Cavalry
1. 6th Inniskilling Dragoons; A detachment only, accompanied the general staff (I assume 1 troop of approximately 70 men; there may have been much less; some sources estimate a dozen)
Image

2. 14th Light Dragoons; 140 fought dismounted at New Orleans. 2 squadrons in North American. Only involved in the US invasion. They were to aquire horses in North America.
Image

3. 19th Light Dragoons; This unit was heavily used in Canada from 1813 onwards. Charged and destroyed an isolated company of US line in 1813; not sure if it saw other action but was present at Chippawa, Lundy's Lane and Plattsburgh. It was dispersed into squadrons and troops across Canada. There were 3 squadrons in Canada in 1813, from 1814 onwards there were 5 squadrons.
Image


4. Canadian Light Dragoons (8 companies /units; mostly looked the same); Militia / Irregulars
Detachments were present at most battles; usually between 6 and 30 men. Couriers mostly but did some skirmishing and fighting dismounted as well.
http://www.cmhg-phmc.gc.ca/cmh/image-31 ... age_id=381
Image

Artillery1.
1. 2 Marine Rocket Batteries; One of these was attached to each marine unit. They were used in Canada in defence. In the invasion of the US there was 1 Royal Horse Artillery Rocket Battery and 2 Marine batteries. *Marine batteries were uniformed as foot art but officers looked like marines, the RHA battery would look like Horse artillery.
Marine Rocket Batteries
Image

2. Royal Foot Artillery; 10 or so batteries supplemented with militia drivers and artificers (Raunchey's Coloured Corps)
Image
Image

3. Several militia batteries and 1 Provincial Regular Battery; had blue coats and wide brimmed hats or plain stove pipe shakos
Image
Image
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Fri Aug 31, 2012 3:33 am

Added plates for Canadian Fencibles, and 93rd Highlanders. Note that there were several battalions of Canadian Highland militia were uniformed like this but with plain green jackets; can be seen in links above under highland militia; the Glengarry and Stormant Highlander Militia fought at Ogdensburg along with the Glengarry Lights (Canadian "battalions" were small for militia 50 to 250 men; but were always combined units of around 300 or so).

The excellent War of 1812 site has been adding plates weekly of late. I am sure there will be more updates.

Best site of War of 1812 uniforms out there;
http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/#
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Fri Sep 21, 2012 12:57 am

Added plates for 41st Regiment, 4th Regiment and Royal Foot Artillery. Added illustrations of Mohawk warriors.

Notes on Canadian Militia

I have been reseraching these units extensively. It seems that the upper Canadian militia which saw much action in this war war a real mismash of uniforms even up until the late war. The 8 battalions of consolidated militia were uniformed as British Line and would be equivalent to American line in my opinion. But the English Sedentary militia wore cast off British uniforms when possible but the majority still had civilian type clothes with round hats up until the end of the war. The French militia (which saw little action) were much more uniform.

Notes on Native Troops

These were fantastic light infantry. Used in support of line troops they demoralized and terrified the American troops. I can find no instances where they were defeated except the Battle of the Thames where they were outnumbered 8 to 1 after the British line with them retreated of surrendered. They would have been good shots and great in melee. In many cases small forces of natives forced larger US forces to surrender or drove them off (Mackinac Island, Beaver Dam, Crysler's Farm, Chateauguay I am sure many others). Without native allies the Canadian and British forces would have been overwhelmed.

A "typical" British force in 1812 to 1814 would be 400 British Regulars, 200 Canadian regulars (fencibles), 200 Canadian Militia and 300 natives. Roughly 1/4 to 1/3 of armies in Canada were Indian troops. Native troops were almost always lead or accompanied by British officers from the native department. Caldwell's Rangers (Caldwell lead Butler's Rangers in the War of Independence) fought alongside the native troops. There were also 400 voyageurs which fought similarily to the native troops.
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Thu Oct 11, 2012 12:15 am

Added plates of Canadian incororated militia. These would be equal to US conscript line IMO.
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Fri Oct 19, 2012 4:36 am

Balance of Army Branches Between the Armies

Line Infantry
Before 1814 the US had no line infantry that could stand up to the British and Canadian regulars in equal numbers. From 1814 onwards, 6 US regiments, represesting perhaps 1/3 of the possible army in the field (since many units were garisoning forts etc) were more heavily trained by Winfield Scott. These 6 units were also Veterans so they were equal to british veterans; which is no small accomplishment. Battalions in the invasions of Canada on both sides would be half sized in comparison to European armies (300 or 400 men per battalion were average).

Light Infantry
The balance of power for light infantry seems to have been with the British and Canadians for the majority of the war. There were some exceptions; at Lundy's Lane and Chippewa the US used their lights arguably better than the British. Both sides had native allies, but they often "turned the tide" for the British forces in many battles. Both sides had rifles, but the US had more of these more effective weapons. The 26th US line was light infantry armed with rifles, in addition the US had 4 battalions of Rifles, though only the first regiment saw much action. The British had the Glengarry Light Infantry, Canadian Voltigeurs, and Canadian Chasseurs. Both sides had many militia light units; most US lights had rifles, probably 1/3 of Canadian militia lights did.

Cavalry
There were few cavalry actions in the war. Both sides used them as skirmishers at times. US Light Dragoons charged British Line infantry at Crysler's Farm but were driven off, they then sniped at the British. In Niagara the 19th British Light dragoons cut down a small unit of line infantry. The cavalry balance was heavily in favour of the US though. The only decisive charges of the war were done with the Kentucky Mounted Militia at the Battle of the Thames and against militia at Malcolm's Mills. The US Light dragoons and militia cavalry attempted to drive off the British during Bladensberg with no success. The Maryland Harford County Light Dragoons lost their standard to the British. There were around 20 000 US cavalry, but most were militia. The following units on both sides were present at battles;

US; 1st and 2nd Light Dragoons, NY Volunteers, NY 7th Dragoons, 1st, 3rd and 5th Maryland Militia (including Baltimore Hussars), Kentucky Mounted Militia, Tenesse Militia, Ohio Militia, Michigan Militia.

British and Canadian; 19th Light dragoons 14th Light dragoons (1 sq), 6th Inniskilling Dragoon detachment (guarding the general), Royal Montreal Militia, Various Upper canada Light dragoon troops.

Artillery
The British had rockets and more professional crews. The US often had more guns (though not always), but they were not coordinated and often not even deployed. The British and US artillery tended to be deployed in half batteries of 3 guns (or smaller). At Lundy's Lane and Chippewa the US had twice as many cannons as the British. The US had over 100 guns set up in the defensive line vs the 5000 man British army at Baltimore. There were 2 marine rocket and 1 regular battery of rocketes used in the war.
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Lord Fullin » Fri Oct 19, 2012 9:29 am

Great work
thank you

Almost all of them already on the pack
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Fri Oct 19, 2012 10:41 pm

Thanks Fullin!

I do believe that all of the cavalry are covered already. There were around 20 US states, each had many companies of militia cavalry; I estimate between 500 and 1000 companies of US cavalry each with their own uniform variations . These can be broken down into several main types of "most common looks";
US Militia / Irregular Cavalry
1. Red jacketed cavalry with tartelan helmets (NY and Michigan)
2. Blue jacketed cavalry with tartelans or stove pipe shakos (Maryland, Virginia, Massachussets and others)
3. A small number of hussar units; some units had pelisses; black, green, blue or red (Mas. NY, Washington) *may not be worth making these
*1 to 3 would have lapels or lace braiding on their jackets
4. Frontier Cavalry with long hunting shirt and wide brimmed hat; (Kentucky, Tennesse, Mississipi and Ohio)
US Line Cavalry
1. 1st and 2nd Light Dragoons

British and Canadian Cavalry
1. British Light Dragoons (14th and 19th)
2. Canadian Militia Light Dragoons (blue with red or white facings, tartelan or top hat with crest); some had white braiding (12 to 15 small troops total; 300 to 500 men)
3. 1 Troop (or less) 6th British Inniskilling HeavyDragoons (may not be worth making; low numbers)

Same thing with the infantry and artillery; the main types are already covered. The current list in the morale section is perfect. :biggrin:

Spad has been continuing to make his excellent plates on the units of 1812.
http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/a ... 91975.html

Added plate for 14th British Light Dragoons. This unit was present at New Orleans. The 19th Light dragoons were stationed in Canada. They would have looked similar but with yellow facings and light blue pants.
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Sat Oct 20, 2012 1:27 pm

From; http://www.mdld.org/

"Inniskillings in the War of 1812 Chesapeake Campaign

A small couriers detachment of Enniskillen (or Inskilling) Dragoons, under Sergeant William Sannford, was sent to America during the latter part of the War of 1812 to serve General Ross, British Army commander of the Chesapeake Campaign. When General Ross rode forward in the Battle of North Point before Baltimore in September 1814 to determine why his column advancing up the North Point peninsula road towards Baltimore had halted, he had four of his staff with him .Colonel McNamara, Lieutenant Hamilton, Sergeant Sannford and another Enniskillen courier private. General Ross was shot by two or three American marksmen, possibly including Privates Wells and McComas of the 5th Maryland Militia Infantry, from about 400 yards with some buckshot. Sannford wrote his story in "The Experiences of a Sergeant in the King"s Service in America" (London 1817)

The only other British "cavalry" capability in the 1814 Chesapeake Campaign was through the use of some artillerymen mounted on captured or looted horses, sometimes without saddles, to serve as scouts for the main force."
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Thu Oct 25, 2012 11:39 pm

Added plate from Spad's uniform blog site; Canadian Light Dragoons!

My favourite so far, no other plates exist for these units. Spad's research is invaluable for the war of 1812.

Also added; British Marines and seamen

Spad also has a downloadable 1812 book to his site.
http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/#
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Thu Nov 01, 2012 9:07 pm

Inniskilling Dragoons added; these were used to guard the British command during the US invasion.
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Sun Nov 04, 2012 1:07 pm

[/u]Added Plates of De Meuron's Regiment; This unit, along with De Wattville's were both named after their commanders. They were both formed in Switzerland 20 years before, so all new troops in these units were not Swiss.

De Meurons regiment had 500 Polish soldiers in it (out of 700 or 800 men). De Wattville's was more of a mix of Italians, Germans, Poles, and of course a minority of Swiss. Both used Prisoners from the penisula to fill out their ranks.

http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/a ... 51436.html

The Company of Foreigners were dressed like the 95th. This was a unit made of French POW's. As can be imagined these units did not perform particularily well and desertion rates were high.

Lower Canadian (French) Militia and Provincial Units
Image

Another unique plate from Uniform Blog added today. This plate shows the French Irregular Light infantry units.
1. The first 2 units were independent companies which were added to the French Canadian Voltigeurs, making it a 10 company regiment (which was split up in groups of 2 or 3 companies).
2. The next unit was formed from the the 5th Embodied Militia, the Canadian Chasseurs were brigaded with the Voltigeurs and took part in the attack at Plattsburgh.
3. The next 3 individuals are French Voyageurs. Hundreds of these men protected the frontiers, moved supplies by boat and took part in battles in the West (Fort Michilimac and Prairie Du Chein). They fought similar to native troops; effective light infantry from cover mostly, good in melee.
4. Last up is a member of the Indian Department. 2 or 3 of these would have been present with native troops. Not always leading them exactly, more like accompanying them. Many of these men were part native themselves and dressed as native troops (complete with war paint)

Image

Image
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Tue Nov 06, 2012 10:27 pm

Several plates added today for Lower Canada Sedentary Militia. These were actual militia; the Incorporated Militia and Provincial Militia units were conscript level or regular level.

http://history-uniforms.over-blog.com/a ... 75293.html

Canadian Troops
1. Fencibles; These were British Regulars that would not have to leave North America. Uniformed exactly as British Line (except for Voltigeurs).
2. Provincial Militia; There were 8 battalions, Artillery Car Brigades, artillery, Pronincial Artificers (coloured corps) and 4 troops of Cavalry. These were basically conscript level regulars. Most of these were based in Quebec (Lower Canada). Uniformed as British line but up to 1813 many had round hats and green uniforms. Apparently they had no standards.
3. Volunteer Units and Flank Companies; These were irregular level troops, better than regular Sedentary Militia. These units were organized into companies withdrawn from each district; they were given land for agreeing to join these units which were trained once a week (or more). The companies were better equipped than the regular sedentary militia; probably by 1814, most wore uniformed in cast off British uniforms. Specific numbers of these are available in; "Soldiers of the King; The Upper Canada Militia 1812-1815". Their number at highest was 4000 troops in around 40 companies. Several of these companies had rifles.
4. Upper Canada Sedentary Militia; These were the parent units of the flank companies. These included 6 to 8 troops of cavalry, and artillery companies. Their total strength averaged 12000 during the war; including the flank companies listed; though this is a deceptive number only 1/4 would be active at any given time and they were used heavily for moving supplies, couriers, boatsmen and garisonning forts. Lincoln/Niagara, York and and areas around Kingston (Eastern Districts) would have been better equipped and uniformed than their Western counterparts. The Quebec Sed. Militia would have numbered around 80000, the Atlantic Provinces around 10000. The French (Quebec) Sedentary militia were only involved in the battle of Chateauguay (just one battalion), the Atlantic Sed. Militia were not engaged at all. Details on organization of the French militia is available in "The Militia of the Battle of the Chateauguay; A Social History"


Image
The majority of sed. militia would have been in uniforms as seen here. The majorit of flank companies wore a mishmash of proper uniforms. 300 Militia received the 41st's old jackets, other men would have received hundreds (possibly up to 2000) of cast off green jackets from the Incorporated Provincial Militia battalions. Many would have also had British Great Coats; or may have worn these as their main uniform.

Image
There were 2 regiments of Glengarry infantry; each of around 700 men. The first unit was given 600 pairs of tartaned pants from England. The Leeds company shown was involved in the battle of Ogdensberg which was primarily fought against the 1st US Rifles. When the rifles retreated they left a lot of equipment; which was taken by at least some (possibly all) of the 2nd Leeds company of rifles.

The British sent 1000 uniforms as seen below in 1814; probably all of these went to the flank companies.
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A number of Upper Canada (Ontario) sedentary militia was used in the following battles; Detroit 400 men, Queenston Heights 400 men, Chateauguay 250 Men (French; uniforms similar to voyageurs), Hoople's Creek 500, Ogdensberg 270 men, Lundy's Lane 500 men; they were present at every other engagement as well, but in lower numbers. On the battlefield they were used as skirmishers, or as a support unit to protect the flanks or rear of the British and Canadian Regulars and Incoporated Militia. In some cases; like with the Stormant and Glengarry Militia they fought on their own vs the American troops.
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Fri Nov 23, 2012 10:11 pm

Added plates from History Uniform blog for British and Canadian Artillery equipment; includes a militia artilleryman's uniform.
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Lord of Moray » Tue Nov 27, 2012 9:16 am

Amazing detailed post, thank you!

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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Tue Nov 27, 2012 10:48 pm

Thank you sir! :smile:

It is very hard to find information on this war (and I live where it was mostly fought; Ontario), so I have been trying to present information as I read about it, and as Spad's fantastic 1812 Uniform blog plates are created. I am hoping this will build interest in the mod, the history, and help table top players as well.
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Sat Dec 01, 2012 7:03 pm

Added plates for Lower Canadian uniformed urban militia; there were 7 battalions of these in Quebec. These were better equipped, uniformed and lead than most sedentary militia units.

Added plate for 104th New Brunswick regiment. This was a Canadian Fencible (regular) unit which became a regular British unit. The only difference between fencibles and regulars being that fencibles signed up to fight only in North America.

Canadian Fencibles should not be confused with the 8 battalions of Provincial regulars (embodied or incorporated militia battalions). These were called militia but all sources say they were not (they were probably equally equipped, lead and trained as US regulars). There were large amounts of militia as well but they were called "Sedentary Militia".
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Sat Dec 08, 2012 9:01 pm

Added plates for Marines, Marine Artillery and Marine Rocket Corps, West Indies Troops and East Coast Militia.
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Sun Feb 03, 2013 1:31 pm

Added British Plate for all British Line. Note that units that were in Canada from 1812-1815 would have started with stove pipe shakos and then received belgic shakos in late 1813 or early 1814. Units that arrived in 1813 arrived with belgic shakos (there were some exceptions such as light infantry which would have kept their stove pipes)
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chromey » Tue Feb 05, 2013 3:17 am

I think canada would have been better off a state in the union. It would have more glory under its belt by today :wink:
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Tue Feb 05, 2013 5:16 pm

Off topic, friendly response to Chromey;

Spoiler: show
Good one!

Except of course that Canada has never lost a war, while the United States has lost several; including the war that was fought to try and take over Canada! True the British invasions to the US went poorly (though they were occupying Maine, parts of the Niagara, Michigan and Louisiana at the end of the war, while the US did not have any Canadian territory) but the multiple US invasion forces were routed time and again by much smaller British and Canadian armies.

In regards to military professionalism Canadian troops were considered the best of WW1 by both sides (nicknamed "Storm Troopers"). They were very highly regarded in other wars as well.

Not to mention medicare, standard of living, being the country chosen best in the world by the UN more than any other country in the world...

Maybe the United States should have joined us! :biggrin:
Last edited by Chuckman on Tue Feb 12, 2013 1:10 am, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby northman » Thu Feb 07, 2013 1:52 am

Great thread, what are your thoughts on what U.C. British Indian Department Officers may have worn?

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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Lord Bloody Bill » Thu Feb 07, 2013 2:03 am

Lets stop the crap and keep it about the War of 1812 facts. Do your trash talking on the battlefield.

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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby Chuckman » Thu Feb 07, 2013 1:36 pm

The Indian department's official uniform can be seen here;
http://www.cmhg.gc.ca/cmh/image-318-eng.asp?page_id=383

The Osprey plate I have shows the same uniform; but has gold eppeleattes (commisioned officers had eppeleates, interpreters did not). Probably many of them would have had blue/light blue pants which were widely distributed to British and canadian troops in 1812 and 1813. There were 100 of these guys. Some were interpreters, while others were commissioned officers. At the Battle of Beaver Dams there were 4 Indian department officers with the native force.

I have read other accounts of some of them dressing as a voyageurs or as natives themselves. The majority of them were metis, usually French. At Beaver Dams 3 of 4 were French.

Beaver Dams quote from wikipedia;
"The main contingent of Natives were 300 Kahnawake, also referred to as Caughnawaga in contemporary accounts. (The Kahnawake were Mohawks who had earlier been converted to Christianity by Jesuit missionaries.) They were nominally commanded by Captain Dominique Ducharme of the Indian Department, with Lieutenants Isaac LeClair and J.B. de Lorimier. There were also 100 Mohawks under Captain William Johnson Kerr."

Caldwell's Western Rangers were created with the intent that a white unit would fight alongside the indians. This is usually how they fought. Their uniform can be seen in the link below. There were 2 units or companies of these guys, it has been estimated around 60 men total. Their leader, William Caldwell was a captain in the well known Butler's Rangers in the American War of Independence. He became superintendant of Indian affairs at the end of the war. Caldwell's Rangers fought at Lundy's Lane, Longwoods, Moraviatown.
http://realpeopleshistory.com/historical/rick-thompson/
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Re: The War of 1812; The British and Canadian Army 1812-1815

Postby northman » Mon Feb 11, 2013 10:32 pm

Thanks for the link and the quotes, there doesn't seem to be a lot of clear info in regards to the B.I.D uniform, these fellas seemed to have slipped through the cracks so to speak.

Thanks again!


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