I have defended in inumoreous occasions that the construction of the Linhas ,did not ever had any contribute (beside and exclusevly the financial one)to the construction of this.
I have waited to much time.
I have decided to share ,with all that are interested, the real arquithects,the real thinkers and workers of this unique defensive Military structure in all the world ,decades ahead of is time. But ,based of centuries of a unique and superb line of constructions ofcastles,fortress´s,citadels,Citânias,etc since Neolithic eras on today Portugal,history.
Already was coming to perform, since the 18th century, large buildings in the medieval fortress on the Portuguese border in order to adapt to the changes of the war and to think twice against our eternal invaders, the Spaniards who had done recently.
How envy,jeaulos of people ruin the work,pure talent and reputation of others.
The work was arquitected by Neves da Costa delineation by the French and stolen by the British. A pure case of ,it doesnt matter who thinks,who works but what counts is the one that payed it even if its stolen.
Here,i decide to share a work done by Maria Helena Dias .
José Maria das Neves Costa (1774-1841)
Journal of the Royal Corps of Engineers, was born in Carnide to August 5, 1774 and died in Lisbon in 1841, probably on 19 October. Graduated at the Academy of fortification, artillery and Design (1793-1796), after the preparatory the Navy Academy (1791-1793), and was awarded one of the best students of his time.
Joze Maria das Neves Costa
Joze Maria das Neves Costa
Major effect.vo the R.al Cd 'Engenhr.os (signature in the rank of Major).
Illustrious military engineer, stood out for his brilliant and innovative work in favor of military cartography, particularly in surveying and land configuration, in addition to having been a skilled designer. Their activity in this vast field developed over 40 years and despite constant that its action throughout the nineteenth century, most unfair fall after the wayside. These activities, whose testimonies were mostly under the manuscript form, highlight will be here just a few, for its relevance.
Since the nineteenth century the most dynamic period of European military cartography, in Portugal it would take longer to organize themselves properly. Difficulties persisted at least until the end of this century, when it tried to start the first military topographic map. But only with the creation of the Army Cartographic Services, predecessors of the current Geographic Institute of the Army, it was possible to properly structure these tasks, which just eventually check in 1932. To this end, Costa Neves contributed brilliantly with both the reputation of its cartographic activities, either with their reorganization proposals and institutionalization of the military topographic work.
The first surveys of breath Costa Neves began on the border of Alentejo, in 1802, when he served in the General Inspectorate of the Border and Marine Coasts of the Kingdom, to the Marquis de Larosière orders. The letter at the time built and designed, dated 1803, and the memory that accompanied it, made the following year, they were, like other works, in power Rosiere. Probably they passed in 1808 into the hands of Vincent, when the 1st French invasion, and then were sent to Paris. Shall be so perhaps explain the disappearance of the original letter of Costa Neves, as long descriptive Memories and military terrain of a part of the Alentejo province of the border are fortunately in Vincennes Archive in France, and have since been released ( 1971-1983). There also exists a translation in French, showing the interest that this work, like others, must have awakened.
In 1819, the very Neves Costa rebuild military Charter of part of the border of the Alentejo between the Tagus and the village of Assumar (1:50 000), from the notes of the original survey.
In early 1808, Costa Neves has carried out surveys in the region of Lisbon, at the request of then Colonel "Corps du Genie" Vincent, who commanded the small body of French engineers who accompanied Junot to Portugal. Having this French aware that with the small number of engineers of his body could not carry out all the necessary reconnaissance work in such a short period of time, he tried to approach the most talented Portuguese engineers. He wrote therefore to Carlos Frederico Bernardo Caula in January 1808, asking him that under his direction if proceed to triangulation and survey the area between Lisbon and Peniche, in particular the coast north of Cabo da Roca with the help of two officers of your choice.
Two distinct Portuguese engineers were then appointed to work with Caula: Costa Neves and Xavier de Brito. These works came to us two important documents: Suite des triangles depuis Cap-Roca jusqu 'au Cap Carvoeiro pour serve as canevas à une carte de cette partie topographique de la côte, 1: 100 000, where three official figure, and a letter topographic between Peniche and Ericeira, 1: 50,000, marked "J. M. das Neves Costa made. " These works also includes the small memory description of the land on the coast of Portugal between the Cabo da Roca and the village of Ericeira, with several observations about their defense against a maritime attack, writing on the same date, in collaboration with Caula.
However, the name of Costa Neves would be forever associated with the letter of the Lisbon region, which stood at 3 months (between late 1808 and the beginning of the following year) and, accompanied by a military memory about the defensive positions. .. would have led to the construction of the Lines of Torres, made under the direction of Wellington, and the expulsion of the French. The controversy that first be installed in connection with the original idea of these lines, that the English always intended her, would eventually lead to serious setbacks to the military career of the then Major Neves Costa, to which certainly came together, then, the struggles between liberals and absolutist. Of the four initially nominated for this official working some time later just got to work Costa Neves, to whom we owe the recognition of land and the construction and design of topographic detail; even Carlos Frederico de Caula, who performed most of the triangulations, was soon away early on to other activities. Then, already in the Military Archive, the outline completed in 1809 by Costa Neves, added to him the following year, other information thus born the outline military itinerária letter containing the topography of a part of the province of Extremadura , ca.1: 100 000, which is currently filed with the Directorate of Engineering Services.
From here it built a simplified and best-known version, the military charter that serves as a supplement to the topographic map of a part of the province of Extremadura neighbor Lisbon, offered in 1811 to Beresford, the commander of his in-chief of the Portuguese army. The 1811 letter was printed in Paris long after (1888), to follow the second version of memory, which, resuming the previous 1809, the author added in 1814, with notes, comparing the positions pointed out before with fortified then by the British, under the command of Wellington, showing their great similarities. In the spirit of Costa Neves has always been the idea, repeatedly expressed that it was necessary not only prolong the letter to Peniche and Santarém as give you more detail and larger scale. But three decades elapsed after this survey and shortly before his death, Costa Neves continued to regret that nothing had been done.
The surveys of the Lisbon region succeed they would, after the French invasion, the area immediately south that would lead to major military topographic Charter of land Setúbal Peninsula (4 leaves, ca.1: 30,000), made by Beresford order. The work would take three years (1813-1815, fieldwork, 1816, drawing), and in that time, Costa Neves had to help him, for short intervals and only in the clipboard operations, some other officers: Marino Miguel Franzini Luis Antonio de Melo, John Damascene da Cunha and Francisco de Assis Blanc. Moreover, much of the triangulation, the military reconnaissance, the configuration of the land and the design have only been in charge of Costa Neves. The longest time it took to build this letter would be due, according to its author, the fact that he was forced to do two jobs: the trigonometric and clipboard, on the one hand, and the topographical itinerary , for another. The preparation of this letter, the Directorate of Engineering Services guard today several dozen sketches of field surveys, many of them without indication of authorship or even some without any other indication. Added schemes of triangulations, one of which, with the signing of Costa Neves and design trials with the configuration of the relief. In the original letter below would be the wording of the corresponding memory (1816), a supplement at this point considered essential for it to be well-designed and useful. However, this memory would be handwritten and more ignored than the image behind it. There is traced a succinct and interesting geographical description, indicating the physical traits and more relevant human Area and refer issues with military interest, related to the defense of the peninsula and therefore also the capital of the country.
The military topographic map of the Setubal Peninsula is an example of modern letters of this type: the express information and its detail and rigor of representation, provide a perfect picture of the best that was possible to do in Portugal the principles of the nineteenth century. The original color far would be almost half a century later (1861), both black and white, having been replaced shaded relief representation of normal. The late distribution of the letter and evidence the interest that still had, loped along.
The study of the landforms and their representation was another topic brilliantly handled by Costa Neves, but that would be almost ignored. This issue was so important at the time, but complex, which this officer tried to establish, based probably on the French work and especially in their own field experience, a theory about the organization of the land relief. Began to outline his Essay on the land relief Theory, privately, in the 1810s, when preparing signs for the standardization of ranges of Portuguese military withdrawals, but only conclude the past 10 years; in the possession of the heirs, the manuscript was later bought by the Portuguese Government and published (1849-1851), which seems to indicate it was unknown until mid-nineteenth century. This work is divided into three parts: general forms of land, ways of the designate and express their relations, especially in the horizontal direction; changes in forms vertically and their designation; Relief deduction from the route of water courses in the letters "geographical".
In fact, the knowledge and the relief image was essential for the military this time, allowing them to establish sound plans of attack and defense of the territory, setting course strongholds and the movement of troops. But its strict representation was not yet possible. The modern contours only appear in the Portuguese charts in 1861 then-regulated the military just the idea of the greatness and the relative expression of the multiplicity of forms, done in the field and spot, it also raised many difficulties, linked not only to drawing as the description of what was observed for lack of understanding by the general principles that regulated and justified the diversity and the apparent chaos of the distribution of forms to the surface of the Earth. Therefore, this theoretical work of Costa Neves, who also refers to their great professional experience, may be considered most relevant for national cartography.
He wrote in 1837, a memory in which he discussed the value attributed to the Portuguese league by Francisco António Ciera, mathematician and astronomer who started in 1790, geodetic work in Portugal. Reproduced by F. Folque in its memory on the surveying work performed in Portugal (1841), the General referred to therein Costa Neves as an officer who "always done great honor to our Corps of Engineers" but that "was more famous you happy "; on the job in question said it was "interesting" and a "beautiful analysis," having studied the subject "with good review and know" what "really honor the memory of his judicious author."
The last work of Costa Neves was held when he was retired "without having asked" as shown on the title page of its military considerations tending to show which are in Portuguese territory the land whose topography remains to know to form the basis of a defensive system the Kingdom, which conforms to its geographical nature and with the general principles of the science of war (1841). These considerations, written shortly before his death, would be the answer to the request that had been made by the Government in 1837: review existing topographical documents in the Military Archives and propose those who were still needed for a plan of defense of the country this file,. Costa Neves who knew well because it worked several times, was created in 1802 and under the responsibility of the Corps of Engineers Command when it was provisionally regulated 10 years later. Then the documents and instruments related to that body were saved, but they were also executed and copied letters and memories.
Organized in 20 chapters, this memory is essentially a statement of the needs of topographic knowledge of the subject areas to invasions directed towards Lisbon and Porto, and also the Portuguese coast. The final three chapters of great interest for the History of Military Cartography in the first half of nineteenth century, are to reflect on the topography and how to improve. In them, Neves Costa proposed the organization of that work in Office of Topography Military, whose organization and objectives discussed. It also proposed the introduction of standards that uniformizassem want withdrawals want the design of the cards. Throughout nearly a hundred and fifty handwritten pages, Costa Neves constantly stress the situation of abandonment of military topographic mapping, resulting in part from the lack of officers prepared Portuguese and little stimulus that was given to them, because they can not move up to senior posts the military hierarchy. No wonder, therefore, there are few topographical documents at the time, these should generally be to the orders of foreign military service of the country and rarely with national authorities. Costa Neves said the limits of its own work; the other, made it stand very still missing. To keep track of your considerations, he prepared a Draft of a letter from the Kingdom of Portugal (1840 ca.1: 600 000), in which he presented a new image of the main ways of Portuguese relief, shadowing them suggestively and approaching the representation in fact more than hitherto carried on the cards.
In conclusion, the picture of Portuguese Cartography outlined in this paper 40s is clearly bleak: disorganization of military cartographic activities and, related to it, the lack of topographic maps. Why not also exist letters passenger waybills of the country, for the movement of troops, Costa Neves was also in charge of proposing standards for their rapid implementation. This resulted in another job yours, dated 1840, containing 29 rules on what should be done in the roads of itineraries: Observations and warnings to proceed with the greatest possible equality and uniformity to partial itineraries that have to be made in different parts of Portuguese territory by several officers to serve after the drafting of the Charter Itinerária General of the Kingdom.
The importance of Costa Neves was also reflected in many other committees and work, which ruled on issues such as national defense or other non-geographic jurisdiction, which gave his cartographer vision and vast knowledge of the country. It argued, boldly , opinions of distinguished foreign Generals, those responsible Portuguese seemed to listen and worship, but desvirtuavam the institution.
He was a member and even came to be appointed to Minister of War by decree of May 20, 1823, but restored the absolutist government, would not get to hold the position. Finally, a professional life vast, diverse and brilliant, ironically not brought him the deserved promotions (after having ascended to Major in 1807, he waited 13 years to see realized the climb to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and in the same year, Colonel), which was cause for envy and hatred and would determine his removal and after the forced retirement. Also for these reasons, end their bitter days. If, after several years, some intended to honor his memory by publishing her part of the work, the military Cartography unknown today completely and therefore never paid her a deserved tribute. In short, the profile of this military engineer is, first of all, the cartographer, ie the competent technician. He crossed the difficult political vicissitudes of the nineteenth century starts, and although penalized by them, remained in office and was nominated for some of great national importance. Late in life, as unable to carry out field work, he was recording his ideas in the cabinet.
He died at 67 years old. "Died on military conspicuous if they did not receive other public show of appreciation, which was so justly due to him; cut bitter disappointments lowered to the tomb with no other decoration but the knight insignia of the military order of St. Benedict of Avis, due to length of service, having been renovated, having not request, with the Brigadier degree, to which patent as former Colonel has long had justice on its effectiveness Army. (...) Thus ends the career of so worthy soldier of the country, who base passions of insofridas ambitions, jealousy and envy, elaborating the treacherous intrigue, it seems, have put the final blows ... "(Claudius Chaby, Excerptos historical ..., 1863).
This text was originally published in: DAYS, Maria Helena - Brigadier José Maria das Neves Costa, 1774-1841: patron of the Army Geographic Institute. [Lisbon]: Geographical Institute of the Army, 2005. 16 p.
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.☠. Lusitani Legio ,Fundator membrum
I think the historical spambot took over Damottas account!
Death to Tyranny
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